Friday, February 7, 2020
Oultline 2 - Essay Example transformers as coolants and lubricants, also used as hydraulic fluids, dyes and carbon-less copy paper ink. When PCBs are released into the atmosphere, they can be ingested through inhaling, eating contaminated food and also drinking contaminated water. This usually occurs because the substances (Polychlorinated biphenyls) stay suspended in the atmosphere and may take a lot time to be cleared off. A person can also be exposed to these chemicals through using or even being at close proximity to old equipments that makes use of PCBs e.g. transformers, fluorescent tubes capacitors and other appliances. Air containing above 42% of chlorine PCB or more than 1microgaram of air for a 10-hour workday, 40-hour workweek is not recommended to breath by NIOSH. Requirements by the EPA is that the companies producing this chemicals should store, transport and dispose of this chemicals following the rules and regulations of the Federal Hazardous Waste Management Program and also limits the amount PCBs used in waste water treatment. Chromium have different oxidation states, one of them is +6 and thus the name hexavalent chromium. It is manufactured industrially. Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI) is are many side effects which include: causes cancer, it also affects the kidney, skin, liver, respiratory system and even eyes. It is estimated that about 558000 workers from different occupations in the United States of America are exposed to hexavalent chromium. Employees are expose to Cr(VI) by inhaling dust, mist or fumes containing this chemical, ingestion or even eye contact with fluids that have this chemical. Exposure to hexa chrome can be very harmful to the skin and the eyes. Direct contact with the skin can lead to susceptible response known as dermatitis. When an anaphylaxis has developed, even concise skin contact can bring about manifestations. Direct skin contact can also bring about an infection referred to as chrome ulcers which small wounds on the skin
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Manager as a Planner and Strategist Essay The Nature of the Planning Process: Planning is a process that managers use to identify and select appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization. The cluster of decisions and actions that managers take to help an organization attain its goals is its strategy. Thus, planning is both a goal-making and a strategy-making process. Planning is a three-step activity: 1)Determining the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals: A mission statement is a broad declaration of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose that identifies the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products and customers and distinguishes the organization from its competitors. 2)Formulating Strategy: Managers analyze the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation and then convince and develop the strategies necessary to attain the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals. 3)Implementing Strategy: Managers decide how to allocate the resources and responsibilities required to implement the strategies between people and groups within the organization. Levels of Planning: In large organizations planning takes place at three levels of management: Corporate Level, Business or Division Level, and Department or Functional Level. The Corporate-level plan contains top managementÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions pertaining to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals, overall strategy, and structure. Corporate-level strategy indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete. The corporate-level plan provides the framework within which divisional managers create their business-level plans. A division is a business unit that has its own set of managers and functions or departments and competes in a distinct industry. Divisional managers are those who control the various divisions of an organization. At the business level, the managers of each division create a Business-level plan that details long-term goals that will allow the division to meet corporate goals and the divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s business-level strategy and structure. Business-level strategy states the methods a division or business intends to use to compete against its rivals in an industry. The business-level plan provides the framework within which functional managers devise their plans. A Function is a unit or department in which people have the same skills or use the same resources to perform their jobs. Functional managers are those who supervise the various functions such as manufacturing, accounting, and sales within a division. A Functional-level plan states the goals that functional managers propose to pursue to help the division attain its business-level goals, which, in turn, allow the organization to achieve its corporate goals. Functional-level strategy sets forth the actions that managers intend to take at the level of departments to allow the organization to attain its goals. An important issue in planning is ensuring consistency in planning across the three different levels. Functional goals and strategies should be consistent with divisional goals and strategies, which in turn should be consistent with corporate goals and strategies, and vice versa. Once complete, each functionÃ¢â¬â¢s plan is normally linked to its divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s business-level plan, which, in turn, is linked to the corporate plan. Who Plans? In general, corporate-level planning is the primary responsibility of top managers. Corporate-level managers are responsible for approving business and functional-level plans to ensure that they are consistent with the corporate plan. Corporate planning decisions are not made in a vacuum. Other managers do have input to corporate-level planning. Even though corporate-level planning is the responsibility of top managers, lower-level managers can and usually are given the opportunity to become involved in the process. At the business level, planning is the responsibility of divisional managers, who also review functional plans. Functional managers also participate in business-level planning. Similarly, although the functional managers bear primary responsibility for functional-level planning, they can and do involve their subordinates in this process. Time Horizons of Plans: Plans differ in their time horizons, or intended durations. Managers usually distinguish among long-term plans, with a horizon of five years or more; intermediate-term plans, with a horizon between one and five years; and short-term plans, with a horizon of one year or less. Typically, corporate- and business-level goals and strategies require long and intermediate-term plans, and functional-level goals and strategies require intermediate and short term plans. Most organizations have an annual planning cycle, which usually linked to the annual financial budget. Although a corporate- or business-level plan may extend over five years or more, it is typically treated as a rolling plan, a plan that is updated and amended every year to take account of changing conditions in the external environment. Rolling plans allow managers to make midcourse corrections if environmental changes warrant or to change the thrust of the plan altogether if it no longer seems appropriate. Standing Plans and Single-Use Plans: Managers create standing and single-use plans to help achieve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s specific goals. Standing plans are used in situations in which programmed decision making is appropriate. When the same situations occur repeatedly, managers develop policies (a general guide to action), rules (a formal, written guide to action), and standard operating procedures (SOP a written instruction describing the exact series of actions that should be followed in a specific situation) to control the way employees perform tasks. Single-use plans are developed to handle nonprogrammed decision making in unusual or one-of-a-kind situations. It includes Programs, which are integrated sets of plans for achieving certain goals, and Projects, which are specific action plans created to complete various aspects of a program. Why Planning is Important? Planning determines where an organization is at the present time and decides where it should be in the future and how to move it forward. When mangers plan, they must consider the future and forecast what may happen in order to take actions in the present and mobilize organizational resources to deal with future opportunities and threats. However, the external environment is uncertain and complex, and managers typically must deal with incomplete information and bounded rationality. Almost all managers engage in planning. The absence of a plan often results in hesitations, false steps, and mistaken changes of direction that can hurt an organization. Planning is important for four main reasons: 1)Planning is a useful way of getting managers to participate in decision making about the appropriate goals and strategies for an organization. 2)Planning is necessary to give the organization a sense of direction and purpose. A plan states what goals an organization is trying to achieve and what strategies it intends to use to achieve them. 3)A plan helps coordinate managers of the different functions and divisions of an organization to ensure that they all pull in the same direction. 4)A plan can be used as a device for controlling managers within an organization. A good plan specifies not only which goals and strategies the organization is committed to but also who is responsible for putting the strategies into action to attain the goals. Henri Fayol said that effective plans should have four qualities: Unity: Means that at any one time only one central, guiding plan is put into operation to achieve an organizational goal. Continuity: Means that planning is an ongoing process in which managers build and refine previous plans and continually modify plans at all levels so that they fit together into one broad framework. Accuracy: Means that managers need to make every attempt to collect and utilize all available information at their disposal in the planning process. Flexibility: Means that plans can be altered and changed if the situation changes. Scenario Planning: One way in which managers can try to create plans that have the four qualities described by Fayol is by utilizing scenario planning (Contingency planning), which is the generation of multiple forecasts of future conditions followed by an analysis of how to respond effectively to each of those conditions. Planning is about trying to forecast and predict the future in order to be able to anticipate future opportunities and threats. Because the future is unpredictable, the only reasonable approach to planning is first to generate scenarios of the future based of different assumptions about conditions that might prevail in the future and then to develop different plans that detail what a company should do in the event that one of these scenarios actually occurs. The great strength of scenario planning is its ability not only to anticipate the challenges of an uncertain future but also to educate managers to think about the future Ã¢â¬â to think strategically. Determining the OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission and Goals: Determining the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals is the first step of the planning process. Once the mission and goals are agreed upon and formally stated in the corporate plan, they guide the next steps by defining which strategies are appropriate and which are inappropriate. Defining the Business: To determine an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, managers must first define its business so that they can identify what kind of value they will provide to customers. To define the business, managers must ask three questions: (1) Who are our customers? (2) What customer needs are being satisfied? (3) How are we satisfying customer needs? Answering these questions helps managers to identify not only the customer needs they are satisfying now but the needs they should try to satisfy in the future and who their true competitors are. All of this information helps managers plan and establish appropriate goals. Establishing Major Goals: Once the business is defined, managers must establish a set of primary goals to which the organization is committed. Developing these goals gives the organization a sense of direction or purpose. In most organizations, articulating major goals is the job of the CEO, although other managers have input into the process. The best statements of organizational goals are ambitious Ã¢â¬â that is, they stretch the organization and require the managers improve its performance capabilities. Although goals should be challenging, they should also be realistic. Challenging goals give managers an incentive to look for ways to improve an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operation, but a goal that is unrealistic and impossible to attain may prompt managers to give up. The time period in which a goal is expected to be achieved should be stated. Time constraints are important because they emphasize that a goal must be attained within a reasonable period. Formulating Strategy: In strategy formulation managers analyze an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation and then develop strategies to accomplish its mission and achieve its goals. Strategy formulation begins with managersÃ¢â¬â¢ analyzing the factors within an organization and outside, that affect the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet its goals now and in the future. SWOT analysis and the five forces model are two techniques managers use to analyze these factors. SWOT Analysis: SWOT analysis is a planning exercise in which managers identify organizational Strengths, Weaknesses, environmental Opportunities, and Threats. Based on a SWOT analysis, managers at the different levels of the organization select the corporate-, business-, and functional-level strategies to best position the organization to achieve its mission and goals. The first step in SWOT analysis is to identify an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses. The task facing managers is to identify the strengths and weaknesses that characterize the present state of their organization. The second step begins when managers embark on a full-scale SWOT planning exercise to identify potential opportunities and threats in the environment that affect the organization at the present or may affect it in the future. With the SWOT analysis completed, and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats identified, managers can begin the planning process and determine strategies for achieving the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals. The resulting strategies should enable the organization to attain its goals by taking advantage of opportunities, countering threats, building strengths, and correcting organizational weaknesses. The Five Forces Model: Michel PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces model: A well-known model that helps managers isolate particular forces in the external environment that are potential threats. Porter identified these five factors that are major threats because they affect how much profit organizations competing within the same industry can expect to make. 1)The level of rivalry among organizations in an industry: The more that companies compete against one another for customers, the lower is the level of industry profits. 2)The potential for entry into an industry: The easier it is for companies to enter an industry, the more likely it is for industry prices and therefore industry profits to be low. 3)The power of suppliers: If there are only a few suppliers of an important input, then suppliers can drive up the price of that input, and expensive inputs result in lower profits for the producer. 4)The power of customers: If only a few large customers are available to buy an industryÃ¢â¬â¢s output, they can bargain to drive down the price of that output. As a result, producers make lower profits. 5)The threat of substitute products: Often, the output of one industry is a substitute for the output of another industry. Companies that produce a product with a known substitute cannot demand high prices for their products, and this constraint keeps their profits low. Porter argued that when managers analyze opportunities and threats they should pay particular attention to these five forces because they are the major threats that an organization will encounter. It is the job of managers at corporate, business, and functional levels to formulate strategies to counter these threats so that an organization can respond to its task and general environments, perform at high level, and generate high profits. Formulating Corporate-Level Strategies: Corporate-level strategy is a plan of action concerning which industries and countries an organization should invest its resources in to achieve its mission and goals. Managers of most organizations have the goal of growing their companies and actively seek out new opportunities to use the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources to create more goods and services for customers. In addition, some managers must help their organizations respond to threats due to changing forces in the task or general environment. (Ex. Customers may no longer buy some kinds of goods or services, or other companies enter the market and attract away customers). Top managers aim to find the best strategies to help the organization respond to these changes and improve performance. The principal corporate-level strategies that managers use to help a company grow, to keep it on top of its industry, and to help it retrench and reorganize to stop its decline are: Concentration on a Single Business, Diversification, International Expansion and Vertical Integration. An organization benefits from pursuing any one of them only when the strategy helps further increase the value of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goods and services for customers. To increase the value of goods and services, a corporate-level strategy must help an organization differentiate and add value to its products either by making them unique or special or by lowering the costs of value creation. 1)Concentration on a Single Business: Most organizations begin their growth and development with a corporate-level strategy aimed at concentrating resources in one business or industry in order to develop a strong competitive position within the industry. Sometimes, concentration on a single business becomes an appropriate corporate-level strategy when managers see the need to reduce the size of their organizations to increase performance. Managers may decide to get out of certain industries. Managers may sell off those divisions, lay off workers, and concentrate remaining organizational resources in another market or business to try to improve performance. In contrast, when organizations are performing effectively, they often decide to enter new industries in which they can use their resources to create more value. 2)Diversification: Diversification is the strategy of expanding operations into a new business or industry and producing new goods or services. There are two main kinds of diversification: Related and Unrelated. Related Diversification: Is the strategy of entering a new business or industry to create a competitive advantage in one or more of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s existing divisions or businesses. It can add value to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products if managers can find ways for its various divisions or business units to share their valuable skills or resources so that synergy is created. Synergy is obtained when the value created by two divisions cooperating is greater than the value that would be created if the two divisions operated separately. In this way, related diversification can be a major source of cost savings. In pursuing related diversification, managers often seek to find new businesses where they can use the existing skills and resources in their departments to create synergies, add value to the new business, and hence improve the competitive position of the company. Unrelated Diversification: Managers pursue unrelated diversification when they enter new industries or buy companies in new industries that are not related in any way to their current business or industries. Main reasons for pursuing unrelated diversification: Ã¢â¬ ¢Buy a poorly performing company, transfers to it their management skills, turn around its business, and increase its performance, all of which creates value. Ã¢â¬ ¢Purchasing businesses in different industries lets managers engage in portfolio strategy, which is apportioning financial resources among divisions to increase financial returns or spread risks among different businesses. Sometimes, too much diversification can cause mangers to lose control on their organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s core business. Although unrelated diversification might initially create value for a company, mangers sometimes use portfolio strategy to expand the scope of their organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s business too much. And so, it becomes difficult for top managers to be knowledgeable about all of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s diverse business. Unable to handle so much information, top managers are overwhelmed and eventually make important resource allocation decisions on the basis of only a superficial analysis of the competitive position of each division. This usually results in value being lost rather than created. 3)International Expansion: Corporate-level managers must decide on the appropriate way to compete internationally. If managers decide that their organization should sell the same standardized product in each national market in which it competes, and use the same basic marketing approach, they adopt a Global Strategy. Such companies undertake very little, if any, customization to suit the specific needs of customers in different countries. But if managers decide to customize products and marketing strategies to specific national conditions, they adopt a Multidomestic Strategy. The major advantage of a global strategy is the significant cost savings associated with not having to customize products and marketing approaches to different national conditions. The major disadvantage is that, by ignoring national differences, managers may leave themselves vulnerable to local competitors that do differentiate their products to suit local tastes. The major advantage of a Multidomestic strategy is that by customizing product offerings and marketing approaches to local conditions, managers may be able to gain market share or charge higher prices for their products. The major disadvantage is that customization raises production costs and puts the Multidomestic company at a price disadvantage because it often has to charge prices higher than the prices charged by competitors pursuing a global strategy. Choosing a Way to Expand Internationally: A more competitive global environment has proved to be both an opportunity and a threat for organizations and managers. The opportunity is that organizations that expand globally are able to open new markets, reach more customers, and gain access to new sources of raw materials and to low-cost suppliers of inputs. The threat is that organizations are likely to encounter new competitors in the foreign countries they enter and must respond to new political, economic, and cultural conditions. Before setting up foreign operations, managers need to analyze the forces in the environment of a particular country in order to choose the right method to expand and respond to those forces in the most appropriate way. There are four basic ways to operate in the global environment: a)Importing and Exporting: The least complex global operations are exporting and importing. A company engaged in exporting makes products at home and sells them abroad. An organization might sell its own products abroad or allow a local organization in the foreign country to distribute its products. Few risks are associated with exporting because a company does not have to invest in developing manufacturing facilities abroad. A company engaged in importing sells at home products that are made abroad. The internet has made it much easier for companies to inform potential foreign buyers about their products. b)Licensing And Franchising: In licensing, a company allows a foreign organization to take charge of both manufacturing and distributing one or more of its products in the licenseeÃ¢â¬â¢s country or world region in return for a negotiable fee (Pursued by manufacturing company). The advantage is that the licenser does not have to bear the development costs associated with opening up in a foreign country. The risks associated with this strategy are that the company granting the license has to give its foreign partner access to its technological know-how. In franchising, a company sells to a foreign organization the rights to use its brand name and operating know-how in return for a lump-sum payment and share of the profits. The advantage is that the franchiser does not have to bear the development costs of overseas expansion. The downside is that the organization that grants the franchise may lose control over the way in which the franchise operates and product quality may fall. c)Strategic Alliances: One way to overcome the loss-of-control problems associated with exporting, licensing, and franchising is to expand globally by means of a strategic alliance. In a strategic alliance, managers pool or share their organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and know-how with those of a foreign company, and the two organizations share the rewards and risks of starting a new venture in a foreign country. A strategic alliance can take the form of a written contract between two or more companies to exchange resources, or it can result in the creation of a new organization. A joint venture is a strategic alliance among two or more companies that agree to jointly establish and share the ownership of a new business. d)Wholly Owned Foreign Subsidiaries: Managers invest in establishing production operations in a foreign country independent of any local direct involvement. Operating alone, without any direct involvement from foreign companies, an organization receives all of the rewards and bears all of the risks associated with operating abroad. This method is much more expensive than the others because it requires a higher level of foreign investment. Advantages: Higher potential returns, reduces the level of risk since managers have full control over all aspects, protect their technology and know-howÃ¢â¬ ¦ 4)Vertical Integration: When an organization is doing well in its business, managers often see new opportunities to create value by either producing their own inputs or distributing their own outputs. Vertical Integration is the corporate-level strategy through which an organization produces its own inputs (backward vertical integration) or distributes and sells its own outputs (forward vertical integration). A major reason why managers pursue vertical integration is that it allows them either to add value to their products by making them special or to lower the costs of value creation. Vertical integration can be a problem when forces in the environment counter the strategies of the organization and make it necessary for managers to reorganize or retrench. Vertical integration can reduce an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility to respond to changing environmental conditions. Formulating Business-Level Strategies: According to Porter, managers must choose between the two basic ways of increasing the value of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products: Differentiating the product to add value or lowering the costs of value creation. He also argues that managers must choose between serving the whole market or serving just one segment of the market. Based on those choices, managers choose to pursue one of four business-level strategies: 1)Low-Cost Strategy: With a low-cost strategy, managers try to gain a competitive advantage by focusing the energy of all the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s departments or functions on driving the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s costs down below the costs of its rivals. According to Porter, organizations pursuing a low-cost strategy can sell a product for less than their rivals sell it and yet still make a profit because of their lower costs. Thus, these organizations hope to enjoy competitive advantage based on their low prices. 2)Differentiation Strategy: With a differentiation strategy, managers try to gain a competitive advantage by focusing all the energies of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s departments or functions on distinguishing the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products from those of competitors on one or more important dimensions, such as product design, quality, or after-sales service and support. Often, the process of making products unique and different is expensive. Organizations that successfully pursue a differentiation strategy may be able to charge a premium price for their products, a price usually much higher than the price charged by a low-cost organization. The premium price allows them to recoup their higher cost. 3)Focused Low-Cost Strategy: Managers pursuing a focused low-cost strategy serve one or a few segments of the overall market and aim to make their organization the lowest-cost company serving that segment. 4)Focused-Differentiation Strategy: Managers pursuing a focused differentiated strategy serve just one or a few segments of the market and aim to make their organization the most differentiated company serving that segment. Formulating Functional-Level Strategies: Functional-level strategy is a plan of action to improve the ability of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s functions to create value. It is concerned with the actions that managers of individual functions can take to add value to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goods and services and thereby increase the value customers receive. The price that customers are prepared to pay for a product indicates how much they value an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products. The more customers value a product, the more they are willing to pay for it. There are two ways in which functions can add value to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s products: 1)Functional managers can lower the costs of creating value so that an organization can attract customers by keeping its prices lower than its competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ prices. 2)Functional managers can add value to a product by finding ways to differentiate it from the products of other companies. There must be a fit between functional- and business-level strategies if an organization is to achieve its mission and goal of maximizing the amount of value it gives customers. The better the fit between functional- and business-level strategies, the greater will be the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage and its ability to attract customers and the revenue they provide. Each organizational function has an important role to play in the process of lowering costs or adding value to a product. Creating value at the functional level requires the adoption of many state-of-the-art management techniques and practices. All of these techniques can help an organization achieve a competitive advantage by lowering the costs of creating value or by adding value above and beyond that offered by rivals. Planning and Implementing Strategy: After identifying appropriate strategies to attain an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission and goals, managers confront the challenge of putting those strategies into action. Strategy implementation is a five-step process: 1)Allocating responsibility for implementation to the appropriate individuals or groups. 2)Drafting detailed action plans that specify how a strategy is to be implemented. 3)Establishing a timetable for implementation that includes precise, measurable goals linked to the attainment of the action plan. 4)Allocating appropriate resources to the responsible individuals or groups. 5)Holding specific individuals or groups responsible for the attainment of corporate, divisional, and functional goals. The planning process goes beyond the mere identification of strategies; it also includes actions taken to ensure that the organization actually puts its strategies into action. It should be noted that the plan for implementing a strategy might require radical redesign of the structure of the organization, the development of new control systems, and the adoption of a program for changing the culture of the organization.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Reminisce back into the elementary school days, where hundreds of kids start to line up for food at the cafeteria. Now picture that cafeteria stuffed with multitudes of bunk beds side by side in which the whole school has to sleep in. Any parent would disapprove of a living situation that is similar to that, but all over the nation, prisoners are facing those exact problems. With the rise of the prison population in America, prisons all over the nation fear what could lead to huge detrimental consequences, one of which is overcrowding. What started out as buildings to only house couple thousands of dangerous criminals, drug offenders, and etc., are now turning into towns and cities of inmates with more prisoners than it can provide for. Many factors contribute to the overpopulation of prisons, but are the government funded prisons the best way of resolving this issue? The expansion of more private prisons has been a topic of many debates in America, especially in California, due to t he many issues popping up in state run prisons. Third party prisons would not only help the huge overcrowding dilemma, but many other issues in the prison as well. The installment of more private prisons would satisfy both the taxpayers and prisoners and transitioning to the privatization of prisons would overall benefit the nation as a whole. As new criminal offenses are added to the penal code and the war on drugs increases, the rate at which inmates are being incarcerated has shot up. While these stricter rules can benefit the public from illegal activities, it is one of the main causes of overcrowding that is an eminent problem in many prisons. Overcrowded prisons usually have rooms that carry more inmates than it is supposed to. If overcrow... ...Private State Prison Releases in Florida." Florida Department of Corrections. (2003): n. page. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. . Gilroy, Leonard, Adam Summers, et al. "Public-Private Partnerships for Corrections in California: Bridging the Gap Between Crisis and Reform." Reason. (2010): n. page. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. . Johnson, Kirk. "What To Do About The Prison Problem: The Pros and Cons of Privatized Prisons in Alabama." Alabama Policy Institute. (2007): n. page. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. . Miller, David. "The Drain of Public Prison Systems and the Role of Privatization: A Case Study of State Correctional Systems." Corplan Corrections. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Human Resource Management Critical Incident Case on Trackon Couriers Pvt. Ltd Course Details Co Prepared By: Case on Trackon Couriers Pvt. Ltd Abstract: Ã¢â¬â The case discusses about the requirement for different management styles at different phase of an organisation and highlights a situation how once effective Managers can become a problem for the organisation if they are not trained and updated with changing environment and organisational goals. Also, the case discusses about the requirement for performance parameters in all aspects of business. New Delhi Ã¢â¬â December 31st 2005 Ã¢â¬â Just returning after his regular badminton game Mr. P. K. Anand Managing Director and CEO of Trackon Couriers Pvt. Ltd was sweating in spite of five degree Celsius temperature outside. He had a very tuff decision to make Ã¢â¬â either to compromise on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s existence or to go against the interest of his once blue eyed boys. Obviously as an entrepreneur he wanted to save the company. Having taken the decision he wanted to decide on the strategy to be adopted, he had invited his colleagues for the New Year eve party which is also going to be an important meeting to decide in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Company Back Ground: Ã¢â¬â Trackon Couriers Pvt. Ltd founded by Mr. Anand in December 2004 amidst of crisis in management of On-Dot Couriers Pvt. Ltd, headed by him. Mr. Anand erstwhile agent of DTDC Courier started On- Dot Couriers along with his business partner Mr. Dinesh Rautela in AprilÃ¢â¬â¢ 1993. Though it was though time to hold on to Business Mr. Anand sustained and made it a Limited Company in 1999 adding three more directors to the board Mr. Y. K. Dabas, Mr. P. K. Singh and Mr. Lokesh Anand younger brother of Mr. P. K. Anand. Shares of the Company were distributed as follows: Ã¢â¬â Mr. P. K. Anand 32 % Mr. LokeshÃ¢â¬ ¦
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1392 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? The purpose of this essay is to assess the role of leadership in creating an organizational culture that will promote innovation and creativity in the workplace. Organizational culture is a very important factor that affects the innovation and the creativity of an organization. Google wouldnÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t be so successful in technological innovation without its excellent organizational culture that gives the opportunity to its employees to work hard and innovate. Leadership has also a strong effect on the organizational culture of a company. A good leader must encourage, motivate and inspire his employees to be more creative and innovative. When Steve Jobs left from Apple, the organizational culture of the company was no longer the same and Apple failed to maintain its great success. Leadership The Example of Apple Leadership is defined as a personÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with other s to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization (Ireland and Hitt, 2005). The role of an organizational leader is to define the organizational goals, formulate plans and organize people to achieve the goals through the execution of plans. Another important role of a leader is to encourage the innovation and creativity within his company. Many people believe that leaders are born and not made such as Steve Jobs who is one of the best examples of good leadership in action. He is a very persistent leader because after he was kicked out from his own company Apple, he didnÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t give up but he started a new company called Next Computers which eventually was acquired by Apple Computers Inc and Jobs became for once more the leader of Apple. If Steve Jobs was not a leader but an ordinary person he would have given up and spend the rest of his life being sad about his loss. The best characteristic of a good leader is innovation. Steve Jobs saw the pow er of innovation when he started his company and he created some of the most famous innovative technological products such as the iPod, iPhone and iPad. He wouldnÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t be able to build all those innovative products by himself so he created an organizational culture that would be able to promote innovation and creativity within his company. The organizational culture of Apple is quite simple. Steve Jobs is setting a goal for his employees as for example the creation of the iPhone and he gives them the opportunity and the freedom to experiment and make mistakes in order to achieve innovation. The most successful and well known leaders are characterized by being constantly up with new ideas and have constant innovation in alignment with their mission in whatever industry they are. Leadership is very important to organizations because it is essential for building, encouraging and promoting a strong organizational culture. The example of Steve Jobs proved that leadership ha s a very important role in creating an organizational culture that will promote innovation and creativity in the workplace. Apple would have failed without its main leader Steve Jobs because he created the organizational culture of Apple which led to the creation of so many innovative products. Organizational Culture The Example of Google Organizational culture has been defined as ÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organizationÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½ (Strategic Management, 2001). Organizational culture is very important for the business and its employees. These days we spend more than 40 hours per week in our work and many people spend more time with those they work with than their family. In order to be happy and productive we donÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t need money only but a nice working environment with a good org anizational culture. We are all looking for a work that is enjoyable, meaningful and engaging. We donÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t want to go to work and look our clock waiting for the time to leave and go home. When we are interested in our work we are more productive and more willing and able to satisfy our customers. Focusing on building a good organizational culture is the best way to show that people are the organizationÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½s most valuable asset. Organizational culture is not important for people only but for the business itself. One of the most important criteria that employees look at when assessing an organization is the organizational culture because employees donÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t want only a good salary and benefits they also want an environment where they can enjoy, improve their skills and succeed in. The benefits of a business with good organizational culture is not only that it can attract experienced and talented employees but also it can help them improve thems elves by giving them the appropriate attention and the right opportunities to develop their skills. The best example of a successful company with an excellent organizational culture is Google. Google is one of the few companies that successfully blended technological innovation with strong organizational culture and this is the reason that it is one of the top 100 companies to work for according to Fortune magazine (2007). GoogleÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½s culture is ethical, customer-responsive, and spiritual. It encourages its employees to be creative in problem solving which can be considered as a risk. Google employees have a sense of team instead of self which encourages them to work together to achieve goals rather than compete against each other which would have led them to unethical behavior. GoogleÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½s employees are allowed the freedom to make decisions that benefit Google users. Google is known for ÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½thinking outside of the boxÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½. It encourages its employees to have fun with their job by creating a working environment which looks like a playground for children. Google increases its employeesÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½ motivation for work and it establishes a culture that creates individuals that have the desire and the motivation to stay and work with the company. The secret behind its success is that it gives enough freedom to its employees to encourage them work harder and be more innovative and productive. Innovation involves a lot of risk taking decisions and it is very important that the leader and the organizational culture of the company will support those decisions. Leadership and Organizational Culture Organizational culture is very important to a companyÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½s innovation and creativity. It is clearly enough that both Apple and Google wouldnÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t be so successful and innovative without their strong and effective organizational culture. What we have learned from the example of App le is that organizational culture on itself it canÃâÃ ¿ÃâÃ ½t promote innovation and creativity. A good leader is needed in order to inspire and guide his employees towards innovation and creativity. This is something that Steve Jobs has proved all these years. From 1985 to 1996 when Jobs left and became again the leader of his company, Apple suffered from a great loss because it stopped being innovative. From 1996 to present Apple is considered one of the most innovative companies in the world because of Steve Jobs. The numbers speak for themselves in 1996 Apple had -816 million dollars net profits and in 2009 it had 5.704 million dollars net profits (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Apple_Inc.#cite_note-34). It is clearly enough that the leader is one with the organizational culture of his company. A good leader has not only to set the goals for his company but he must also make sure that these goals will be achieved. The employees of a company follow the steps of their leader if their leader is innovative and creative then they will try to be also innovative and creative and if their leader is just lazy then they will also be lazy. The leader is responsible for the atmosphere and the working environment of the company. A company is like a mirror of its leader if the leader is creative and innovative then his company and its organizational culture will also be creative and innovative. Conclusion The conclusion is that organizational culture and leadership are interdepended. It is impossible for a company to have excellent leadership and bad organizational culture or to have excellent organizational culture and bad leadership in the same time. Therefore the role of leadership in creating an organizational culture that will promote innovation and creativity in the workplace is very critical. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! 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Friday, December 27, 2019
Introduction The research study examined possible correlations between various types of perfectionism and levels of recovery from eating disorders. The researchers conducted their experiment by comparing different conceptions of perfectionism across a healthy control group and fully recovered, partially recovered, and current (active) eating disorder groups. The researchers who conducted this experiment were Anna M. Bardone-Cone, PhD, Katrina Sturm, BA, Melissa A. Lawson, MD, Dr. Paul Robinson, MD, and Roma Smith, LPN. Anna M. Bardone-Cone, Katrina Sturm, and Melissa A. Lawson are from the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri in Columbia Missouri. Dr. Paul Robinson and Roma Smith are from theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There were 55 active eating disorder, 15 partially recovered, 20 fully recovered, and 67 healthy control individuals who participated in this study. The active eating disorder group was made up of people currently diagnosed with an eating dis order. Participants in the healthy control group were people who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a history of eating disorders in themselves or their families. Each group of individuals was evaluated on various types of perfectionism. The research hypothesis was that when eating disorder recovery was defined in a comprehensive way (physically, behaviorally, and cognitively), individuals who were fully recovered would have lower levels of perfectionism when compared to individuals with active eating disorders; and levels of perfectionism would be similar in partially recovered and active eating disorder cases. Participants All participants in the study were females ages 16 and older. Current and former eating disorder patients were recruited at the University of Missouri Pediatric and Adolescent Specialty Clinic. Individuals for the healthy control group were recruited from the same clinic as the current and former eating disorder patients, as well as from the university campus. As stated earlier, the control group
Thursday, December 19, 2019
ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s child play has become a form of an unrealistic world. Although, it is considered for children to begin creating a creative imagination, the mind fascinates children into toys. Some childÃ¢â¬â¢s play toys are not ideal for young children, like the one and only Ã¢â¬Å"BarbieÃ¢â¬ . Barbie has become a worldwide toy product for children all over the world, from the North Pole to the South Pole. These dolls have emerged from one ethnicity to another. In Ann DuCille, Ã¢â¬Å"Dyes and Dolls: Multicultural Barbie and the Merchandising of DifferencesÃ¢â¬ the author talks about the race and gender differences; found in Barbie. She argues; Ã¢â¬Å"Is Barbie bad?Ã¢â¬ her response, was Ã¢â¬Å"Barbie is just a piece of plasticÃ¢â¬ (459). In contrast, this piece of plastic is not just a piece of plastic to young girls; it is much more than that. A piece of plastic that little girls all over the world wish they could be. Even though, it is only a piece of plastic to adu lts that Barbie significantly means nothing to them. Growing up, I owned a couple of Barbie dolls. The tall, long blond hair, blue-eyed doll was my best friend and my Ã¢â¬Å"role modelÃ¢â¬ . I wanted to become exactly like Barbie. As a child, I thought only beautiful people who looked liked Barbie signified beauty. To my little to no knowledge, I soon came to find out no one really looks like Barbie, except people who want to become like Barbie. In my adolescent years, no one taught me Barbie was Ã¢â¬Å"unrealÃ¢â¬ ; no one taught me it was just a figure in my imagination.Show MoreRelatedWhy Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together?917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshinders educational opportunity of African-Americans through the expectations of others and self-identity conflicts. 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